Dropout in adult education as a phenomenon of fit
An integrative model proposal for the genesis of dropout in adult education based on dropout experiences
Keywords:adult education, adult education decisions, dropout, dropout model, fit
In adult training practice, dropout marks the transition from participation to non-participation. There are only a few theoretical models, especially from the second half of the 20th century, that address this phenomenon. With special consideration to the congruence model of Boshier (1973) and the integration model of Tinto (1975, 1993) the study focuses first on the theoretical discussion of empirically grounded models for the explanation of dropout in the field of adult education. Against the background of analyses of 40 problem-centered interviews with dropouts from adult education, the two models are examined as to their explanatory contributions. Based on these empirical and theoretical explorations, a newly developed typology of as well as a model for dropout are proposed which topicalize dropout in adult education as a phenomenon of fit.
Bariso, E. U. (2008). Factors affecting participation in adult education: a case study of participation in Hackney and Waltham Forest, London. Studies in the Education of Adults, 40(1), 110-124.
Blossfeld, H.-P., Rossbach, H.-G., & von Maurice, J. (Eds.). (2011). Education as a lifelong process: The German National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Boshier, R. (1971a). An Instrument and Conceptual Model for the Prediction and Diagnosis of Dropout from Educational Institutions. Department of University Extension, Victoria University of Wellington: Wellington, New Zealand.
Boshier, R. (1971b). Motivational Orientations of Adult Education Participants: A Factor Analytic Exploration of Houle’s Typology. Adult Education, 21(2), 3.
Boshier, R. (1972a). The Effect of Academic Failure on Self-Concept and Maladjustment Indices. Journal of Educational Research, 65(8), 347.
Boshier, R. (1972b). The Development and Use of a Dropout Prediction Scale. Adult Education, 22(2), 87.
Boshier, R. (1973). Educational Participation and Dropout: A Theoretical Model. Adult Education, 23(4), 255.
Boshier, R. (1977). Motivational Orientations Re-Visited: Life-Space Motives and the Education Participation Scale. Adult Education, 27(2), 89.
Carmo Nicoletti, M. (2019). Revisiting the Tinto’s Theoretical Dropout Model. Higher Education Studies, 9(3), 52-64.
Chrysikos, A, Ahmed, E. & Ward, R. (2017). Analysis of Tinto’s student integration theory in first-year undergraduate computing students of a UK higher education institution. International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, 19(2), 97-121.
Darkenwald, G. G., & Gavin, W. J. (1987). Dropout as a function of discrepancies between expectations and actual experiences of the classroom social environment. Adult Education Quarterly, 37(3), 152-163.
Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide: a study in sociology. The Free Press.
Emirbayer, M. (1997). Manifesto for a Relational Sociology. The American Journal of Sociology, 103(2), 281-317.
Evans, M., & Tragant, E. (2020). Demotivation and Dropout in Adult EFL Learners. The Electronic Journal for English as a Second Language, 23(4), 1-20.
Garrison, D. R. (1987). Researching dropout in distance education. Distance Education, 8(1), 95-101.
Garrison, D. R. (1988). A deductively derived and empirically confirmed structure of factors associated with dropout in adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 38(4), 199-210.
Gary A. T. (2010). Ruth C. Cohn (1912 - 2010), American Psychologist, 65(9), 926.
German Education Council / Deutscher Bildungsrat (1970). Strukturplan für das Bildungswesen. Dt. Bildungsrat.
Hippel, A. von, & Tippelt, R. (2010). The role of adult educators towards (potential) participants and their contribution to increasing participation in adult education - insights into existing research. European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults, 1(1-2), 33-51.
Hoffmann, S., Thalhammer, V., Hippel, A. von, & Schmidt-Hertha, B. (2020). Drop-out in der Weiterbildung – eine Verschränkung von Perspektiven zur (Re-)Konstruktion des Phänomens Drop-out. Zeitschrift für Weiterbildung, 43(3), 31-46.
Hoffmann, S., Thalhammer, V., Hippel, A. von, & Schmidt-Hertha, B. (2021). Situative (Nicht-)Passung als Erklärungsansatz von Drop-out in der Weiterbildung. Zeitschrift für Weiterbildung, 44, 241–262
Houle, C. O. (1961). The inquiring mind. Madison. University of Wisconsin Press.
Jacot, A., Frenay, M., & Cazan, A.-M. (2010). Dropout of adult learners returning to university: Interactions of motivational and environmental factors. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Bra?ov, 52(3), 83-90.
Kambouri, M., & Francis, H. (1994). Time to Leave? Progression and Drop Out in Basic Skills Programmes. Report. London: Adult Literacy and Basic Skills Unit.
Kerby, M. B. (2015). Predictive Model of Student Retention in Higher Education: An Application of Classical Sociological Theory. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 0(0), 1-24.
Klein, D. (2019). The interplay between academic and social integration in explaining higher education dropout intentions: An empirical application of Tinto's integration model in the German context. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 22(2), 301-323.
Kluge, S. (2000). Empirically Grounded Construction of Types and Typologies in Qualitative Social Research [14 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(1), Art. 14, URL: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0001145. [15.05.2020]
Kuwan, H., & Larsson, A.-C. (2008). Final Report of the Development of an International Adult Learning Module (OECD AL Module): Recommendations on Methods, Concepts and Questions in International Adult Learning Surveys. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 21. URL: https://doi.org/10.1787/19939019 [15.05.2020].
Li, H. (2017). Academic Integration of Mainland Chinese Students in Germany. Social Inclusion, 5(1), 80-92.
Maslow, A. H. (1967). A Theory of Metamotivation: the Biological Rooting of the Value-Life. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, VII(2), 93-127.
McGivney, V. (2004). Understanding persistence in adult Learning. Open Learning, 19(1), 33-46.
Miles, M. B., & Hubermann, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. SAGE Publications.
Neugebauer, M., Heublein, U., & Daniel, A. (2019). Higher education dropout in Germany: extent, causes, consequences, prevention. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 22(5), 1025-1046.
Park, J.-H., & Choi, H. J. (2009). Factors Influencing Adult Learners’ Decision to Drop Out or Persist in Online Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 12(4), 207-217.
Perin, D., & Greenberg, D. (1994). Understanding dropout in an urban worker education program. Retention patterns, demographics, student perceptions, and reasons given for early departure. Urban Education, 29(2), 169-187.
Pickard, A. (2013). Attrition happens: Towards an acknowledgement and accommodation perspective of adult literacy student dropout. Journal of Research and Practice for Adult Literacy, Secondary, and Basic Education, 2(2), 114-126.
Reich-Claassen, J. (2010). Warum Erwachsene (nicht) an Weiterbildungsveranstaltungen partizipieren. Einstellungen und prägende Bildungserfahrungen als Regulative des Weiterbildungsverhaltens. Münster: LIT Verlag.
Rogers, C. R. (1963). The Concept of the Fully Functioning Person. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 1(1), 17-26.
Schmidt, B. (2011). Dropout in der Erwachsenenbildung. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 57(2), 203-213.
Schmidt-Hertha, B., & Tippelt, R. (2011). Typologien. Report. Zeitschrift für Weiterbildungsforschung, 34(1), 23-35.
Shank, J. A., & McCracken, J. D. (1993). Dropout and completion in adult vocational job training programs: a prediction model for the adult vocational student. Paper presented at 1993 American Vocational Association.
Spady, W. (1970). Dropouts from higher education: An interdisciplinary review and synthesis. Interchange, 1(1), 64-85.
Spady, W. (1971). Dropouts from higher education: Toward an empirical model. Interchange, 2(3), 38-62.
Stamm, M. (2012). Schulabbrecher in unserem Bildungssystem. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research. Techniques and procedures for developing Grounded Theory. Sage.
Tietgens, H. (1992). Reflexionen zur Erwachsenendidaktik. Klinkhardt.
Ten Dam, G. T. (1995). Drop-out from adult education: social environment, school culture and perceptions. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 14(1), 51-63.
Tinto, V., & Cullen, J. (1973). Dropout in Higher Education: A Review and Theoretical Synthesis of Recent Research. Columbia University. URL: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED078802.pdf [15.05.2020]
Tinto, V. (1975). Dropout from higher education: a theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45(1), 89-125.
Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student Attrition. University of Chicago Press.
Witzel, A. (2000). The problem-centered interview [26 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 1(1), Art. 22, URL: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0001228 [12.05.2020]
Ziegler, M. F., Bain, S.K., Bell, S.M., McCallum, R. S., & Brian, D. J. G. (2006). Predicting women’s persistence in adult literacy classes with dispositional variables. Reading Psychology 27, 59-85.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Veronika Thalhammer, Stefanie Hoffmann, Aiga von Hippel, Bernhard Schmidt-Hertha
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
As RELA is an open access journal, this means that anyone who can access the Internet can freely download and read the journal. There are no commercial interests for Linköping University Electronic Press or the European Society for Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA) in publishing the journal. There are no charges for publishing authors.
The core idea of open access is that copyright remains with the author(s). However, we publish with the agreement of the author that if she or he decides later to publish the article elsewhere, that the publisher will be notified, prior to any acceptance, that the article has already been published by RELA.
When publishing with RELA, it is with the agreement of the author that if they make their article available elsewhere on the internet (for example, on their own website or an institutional website), that they will do so by making a link to the article as published in RELA using the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number of the article and acknowledge in the text of the site that the article has been previously published in RELA.
Grant numbers SCHM 2391/6-1;HI 1599/4-1