Adult education and the State: Gramsci, the historical materialist tradition and relevant others
Keywords:State, neoliberalism, globalization, network, competition, Gramsci
AbstractThis paper focuses on the relationship between adult education and the State within the context of hegemonic globalization and the all pervasive neoliberal ideology. It draws from a variety of sources and provides an overview of discussions concerning the State giving pride of place to the Historical Materialist tradition in the area. Using a Gramscian perspective, it argues that contrary to the widespread mantra that the state has receded into the background in this era of globalization, we argue that the State remains ever so present in this context and, if anything, remains central to the Neoliberal project.
Allman, P. (2010). Critical education against global capitalism. Karl Marx and revolutionary critical education. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Allulli, D. (1990). Italy: The territorio approach. In C. Poster & A. Krüger (Eds.), Community education in the western world (pp. 44-50). London & New York: Routledge.
Althusser, L. (1971). Lenin, Philosophy and Other Essays. New York & London: Monthly Review Press.
Arnove, R.F. (1986). Education and Revolution in Nicaragua. New York: Praeger.
Ball, S. J. (2007). Education plc private sector participation in public sector education. London:
Ball, S. J. (2010). New states, new governance, new educational policy. In M. W. Apple, S. J. Ball & L. A. Gandin (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of the sociology of education (pp. 155-
. New York & London: Routledge. Doi: 10.1108/01443331011033346
Bauman, Z. (2006). The crisis of the human waste disposal industry. In D. Macedo & P. Gounari (Eds.), The globalization of racism (pp. 36-40). Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Borg, C., Buttigieg, J. A., & Mayo, P. (2002). Gramsci and education: A holistic approach. In C. Borg, J. A. Buttigieg & P. Mayo (Eds.), Gramsci and education (pp. 1-23). Lanham, Boulder, New York& Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.
Borg, C., & Mayo, P. (2007). Public intellectuals, radical democracy and social movements. A book of interviews. New York: Peter Lang.
Buttigieg, J. A. (2002). On Gramsci. Daedalus,131(3) 67-70.
Cardoso, F. H. (1979). On the characterization of authoritarian regimes in Latin America. In D. Collier (Ed.), The new authoritarianism in Latin America (pp. 33-60). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Carnoy, M. (1982). Education, economy and the state. In M. Apple (Ed.), Cultural and economic reproduction in education: Essays on class, ideology and the state (pp. 79-126). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Doi: 10.1111/1471-0374.00002
Carnoy, M. & Castells, M. (2001). Globalization, the knowledge society, and the network state.
Poulantzas at the millennium. Global Networks, 1(1), 1-18.
Carnoy, M., & Levin, H. (1985). Schooling and work in the democratic state. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Carnoy, M. & Torres, C.A. (1990). Education and social transformation in Nicaragua. In M. Carnoy & J. Samoff (Eds.), Education and social transition in the Third World (pp. 315-360). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
CEC. (2006a). Communication from the Commission to the Council of the European Parliament. Delivering on the Modernisation Agenda for Universities. Education, Research, Innovation. Brussels: European Commission on Education and Communication.
CEC. (2006b). Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Implementing the Community Lisbon Programme: Fostering entrepreneurial mindsets through education and learning. Brussels: European Commission.
CEC. (2008). Decision of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the European Year of Creativity and Innovation, 2009. Brussels: European Commission.
Cole, M. (2011). Racism and education in the UK and the US: Towards a socialist alternative. New York& London: Palgrave Macmillan. Doi: 10.1057/9780230119352
Corrigan, P. (1990). Social forms and human capacities. Essays in authority and difference. London &
New York: Routledge.
Corrigan, P., Ramsay, H. & Sayer, D. (1980). The state as a relation of production. In P. Corrigan (Ed.), Capitalism, state formation and Marxist theory (pp. 1-26). London: Quartet Books.
Corrigan, P., & Sayer, D. (1985). The Great Arch: English state formation as cultural revolution. Oxford: Blackwell.
Dale, R. (1982). Education and the capitalist state. In M. Apple (Ed.), Cultural and economic reproduction in education: Essays on class, ideology and the state (pp. 127-161). London:
Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Dale, R. (2008). Neoliberal capitalism, the modern state and the governance of education. Tertium Comparationis, 17(2), 183-98.
Darmanin, M. (2009). Further and higher education markets’ cushions: Portability of policy and potential to pay. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 19(3), 175-201. doi: 10.1080/09620210903424477
Debord, G. (1967). La société du spectacle. Paris: éditions Buchet-Chastel. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www.bopsecrets.org/SI/debord/1.htm
Debord, G. (1994). The society of the spectacle (trans. D. Nicholson-Smith). New York: Zone Books.
English, L. M. (2005). Foucault, feminists and funders: A study of power and policy in feminist organisations. Studies in the Education of Adults, 37(2), 137-150.
Fairclough, N. & Wodak, R. (2008). The Bologna process and the knowledge-based economy: A critical discourse analysis approach. In B. Jessop, N. Fairclough, & R.Wodak (Eds.), Education and the knowledge-based economy in Europé (pp. 109-126). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Foucault, M. (1988). Technologies of the self. In L. H. Martin, H. Gutman & P. H. Hutton (Eds.), Technologies of the self (pp. 16-49). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Gentili, P. (2005). La Falsificazione del Consenso: Simulacro e Imposizione nella Riforma Educativa del Neoliberalismo. Pisa, Italy: Edizioni ETS.
Giroux, H. (2004). The terror of neoliberalism. Authoritarianism and the eclipse of democracy. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
Giroux, H. (2006). Beyond the spectacle of terrorism. Global uncertainty and the challenge of the new
media. Boulder, CO: Paradigm. Doi: 10.1215/1089201x-2006-001
Giroux, H. (2009). Brutalising kids: Painful lessons in the pedagogy of school violence. Truthout 8/10/2009. Retrieved October 10, 2009, from http:www.truthout.org/10080912
Giroux, H. & Searls Giroux, S. (2004). Take back higher education. Race, youth and the crisis of democracy in the post-civil rights era. New York & Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave-Macmillan. Doi: 10.1057/9781403982667
Gramsci, A. (1971). Selections from the prison notebooks. New York: International Publishers.
Gramsci, A. (1997). Le Opere. La Prima Antologia di Tutti Gli Scritti Te Works. Rome: Editori Riuniti.
Green, A. (1990). Education and state formation. New York & London: Macmillan.
Habermas, J. (1970). Toward a Rational Society: Student Protest, Science and Politics. Boston: Beacon Press.
Habermas, J. (1998). Theory of Communicative Action. Oxford: Polity Press.
Hall, S. (1996). Gramsci’s relevance for the study of race and ethnicity. In D. Morley & K.-H. Chen (Eds.), Stuart Hall: Critical dialogues in cultural studies (pp. 411-440). London: Routledge.
Held, D. (1987). Models of democracy. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Herman, E. S. & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the mass media. New York: Pantheon.
Hirschfeld, U. (2010). Towards a political theory of social work and education. In P. Mayo (Ed.), Gramsci and educational thought (pp.114-126). Oxford & New York: Wiley-Blackwell. Doi: 10.1002/9781444324006.ch7
Hobsbawm, E. (1987). Gramsci and Marxism. (Lecture recorded in April, 1987 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Gramsci’s death). Retrieved August 30, 2010, from http://www.internationalgramscisociety.org/audio-video/index.html
Hobsbawm, E. (2011). How to Change the World. Tales of Marx and Marxism. London: Little, Brown.
Jarvis, P. (1994). Adult education and the state. London & New York: Routledge.
Jessop, B. (2002). The future of the capitalist state. Oxford: Polity Press.
Kellner, D. (2005). Media spectacle and the crisis of democracy: Terrorism, war, and election battles. Boulder, CO: Paradigm.
Kellner, D. & Share, J. (2009). Critical media literacy and radical democracy. In M.W. Apple, W. Au& L.A. Gandin (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of critical education (pp. 281-295).
New York & London: Routledge.
Korsgaard, O. (1997). The impact of globalization on adult education. In S. Walters (Ed.), Globalization, adult education and training. Impacts and issues (pp. 15-26). London & New York: Zed Books.
Lenin, V.I. (1917). The state and revolution – Class, society and the state. Collected Works, Vol. 25 (pp. 381-492). Retrieved January 29, 2011, from http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/staterev/ch01.htm#s2
London Edinburgh Weekend Return Group (1980). In and against the state. London: Pluto Press.
Lyotard, J.-F. (1989). The Postmodern Condition. A Report on Knowledge. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Marquez, H. (2005). Venezuela declares itself illiteracy-free. Global Exchange. Retrieved Januaray 17, 2011, from http://www.globalexchange.org/countries/americas/venezuela/3558.html
Marshall, J. (1997). Globalisation from below: The trade union connections. In S. Walters (Ed.), Globalization, adult education and training: Impact and issues (pp. 57-68). London & New York: Zed Books; Leicester, UK: NIACE.
Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1978). The Marx-Engels Reader. New York: Norton.
Marx, K. & Engels, F. (1848/1998). The Communist Manifesto. New York & London: Monthly Review Press.
Mayo, P. (1999). Gramsci, Freire and adult education: Possibilities for transformative action. London: Zed Books.
Mayo, P. (2002). Final comments by General Rapporteur. In P. Mayo, K. Symeonides, & M. Samlowski (Eds.), Perspectives on adult education in the Mediterranean and beyond (pp. 76-82). Bonn: IIZ/DVV.
Mayo, P. (2011). The centrality of the state in neoliberal times. Gramsci and beyond. International Gramsci Journal, 3, 57-71.
McLaren, P. (2000). Che Guevara, Paulo Freire and the Pedagogy of Revolution. Lanham: Rowman& Littelfield.
McLaren, P., Companeros & Companeras (2005). Red Seminars. Radical Excursions into Educational Theory, Cultural Politics and Pedagogy. New Jersey: Hampton Press Inc.
McLaren, P. & Farahmandpur, R. (2005). Teaching against Global Capitalism and the New Imperialism. A Critical Pedagogy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Meiksins Wood, E. (2003). The empire of capital. London & New York: Verso.
Merrington, J. (1977). Theory and practice in Gramsci’s Marxism. In G. S. Jones (Ed.), Western Marxism: A critical reader (pp. 140-175). London: Verso.
Miliband, R. (1969). The state in capitalist society. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.
Morrow, R. A. & Torres, C. A. (1985). Social theory and education. A critique of theories of social and
cultural reproduction. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Mulderrig, J. (2008). Using keywords analysis in CDA: Evolving discourses of the knowledge economy in education. In B. Jessop, N. Fairclough & R. Wodak (Eds.), Education and the knowledge-based economy in Europé (pp. 149-169). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Nesbit, T. (Ed.). (2005). Class concerns: Adult education and social class. (New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, # 106.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Doi: 10.1002/ace.174
Newman, M. (2006). Teaching defiance: Stories and strategies for activist educators. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
O’Cadiz, M. d’ P., Lindquist Wong, P. & Torres, C. A. (1998). Education and democracy. Paulo Freire, social movements and educational reform in São Paulo. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
O’Connor, J. (1973). The fiscal crisis of the state. New York: St Martin’s Press.
Offe, C. (1984). Contradictions of the welfare state. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Offe, C. (1985). Disorganized capitalism contemporary transformation of work and politics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Panich, L. (1976). Social democracy and industrial militancy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511898266
Pannu, R. S. (1988). Adult education, economy and state in Canada. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 34, 232-245.
Poggi, G. (2006). State. In B. S. Turner (Ed.), The Cambridge dictionary of sociology (pp. 607-608). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Poulantzas, N. (1978). L’état, le pouvoir, le socialism. Paris: PUF.
Reichman, J. (2005). Andragogy. In L. M. English (Ed.), International encyclopedia of adult education (pp. 58-63). New York: Palgrave.
Selman, G., Cooke, M., Selman, M. & Dampier, P. (1998). The foundations of adult education in Canada. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing.
Stein, J. G. (2003). Cult of efficiency. The CBC Massey Lectures. Toronto: House of Anansi Press.
Thomas, P. (2009). The Gramscian Moment: Philosophy, Hegemony and Marxism. Amsterdam: Brill. Doi: 10.1163/ej.9789004167711.i-478
Torres, C. A. (1990). The politics of nonformal education in Latin America. New York: Praeger. Doi: 10.1086/446912
Torres, C. A. (1991). A political sociology of adult education: A research agenda. Education, 4(1), 29-34.
Welton, M. R. (Ed.). (1995). In defense of the lifeworld: Critical perspectives on adult learning. Albany, NY: State University of New York.
Williams, R. (1976). Base and superstructure in Marxist cultural theory. In R. Dale, G. Esland & M. Macdonald (Eds.), Schooling and capitalism: A sociological reader (pp. 202-209). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Youngman, F. (1987). Adult Education and Socialist Pedagogy. Kent: Croom Helm.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2011 The author(s)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
As RELA is an open access journal, this means that anyone who can access the Internet can freely download and read the journal. There are no commercial interests for Linköping University Electronic Press or the European Society for Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA) in publishing the journal. There are no charges for publishing authors.
The core idea of open access is that copyright remains with the author(s). However, we publish with the agreement of the author that if she or he decides later to publish the article elsewhere, that the publisher will be notified, prior to any acceptance, that the article has already been published by RELA.
When publishing with RELA, it is with the agreement of the author that if they make their article available elsewhere on the internet (for example, on their own website or an institutional website), that they will do so by making a link to the article as published in RELA using the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number of the article and acknowledge in the text of the site that the article has been previously published in RELA.