Migrants’ self-perception of technical skills and occupational realities: A case of Zimbabwean School- Leaver Migrants in Botswana


  • Jerald Hondonga Tshwane University of Technology
  • Manto Sylvia Ramaligela University of Limpopo
  • Moses Makgato Tshwane University of Technology




competencies, informal sector, low-skilled migrant, school-leaver, technical skills, challenges


The level of technical skills affects the integration of migrants into the host country’s labour market. This study investigated the relationship between Zimbabwean school-leaver migrants’ self-perception of technical skills and occupational realities. A mixed-method research design was used in this study and systematic sampling was used to select respondents for the study. Questionnaires were administered on 60 respondents to collect quantitative data whilst 19 respondents provided qualitative data using semi-structured interviews. Findings suggested that most low-skilled migrants from Zimbabwe faced several challenges including failure to secure formal employment, obtain work and residence permits because of their low-level technical skills and qualifications. This challenge further affects migrants’ social integration and economic status in the host country. Findings also revealed that there are no strategies to provide skills to migrant labour to assist them to join the mainstream labour market and reduce their life challenges in Botswana.


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How to Cite

Hondonga, J., Ramaligela , M. S., & Makgato, M. (2022). Migrants’ self-perception of technical skills and occupational realities: A case of Zimbabwean School- Leaver Migrants in Botswana. European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults, 13(2), 171–191. https://doi.org/10.3384/rela.2000-7426.3385